Institute Europa Subterranea

IES Yearbook

2018 EDITION and the 2021 Journal


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Contents 2008

Table of Contents


5 Preface

7 The underground Landscape by Jac Diederen.

11 The Municipality of Valkenburg and its Quarries by Roger Huntjens.

15 Managing the Quarry Sites of the Municipality of Riemst by Ton Breuls.

21 Starting a Framework for Analysis; Subterranean Cultural Landscapes, Valuation & Preservation by John R. Van Scha ik.

31 The underground Limestone Quarries in the Low Countries and their Place in European Mining History by Jacquo Silvertant.

53 The underground Quarries of Hinnisdael at Vechmaal (Municipality Heers, Belgian Limburg): Geology, Mining, Risks, Geoheritage by Michiel Dusar & David Lagrou.

59 Mining Archaeology in Southwest Germany: Methods, Results and Protection of Mining Sites by Martin Straβburger.

81 Relics of ancient Mining at Sibbe; An old Quarrying Technique at the Vallenberg Quarry by Kevin Amendt.

115 Relics of ancient Mining in the Area of Reichelsheim/Odenwald: Mining Research, Preservation and geotouristic Exploitation in the UNESCO Geopark Bergstraβe – Odenwald (Germany) by Jochen Babist & Joche n Rietdorf.

127 The Souterrain of Petit – Savoie (Vienne) by Luc Stevens.

139 The underground Millstone Quarries at Niedermendig and Mayen. History, Research, Threats and Valuation by Joern Kling.

171 Surface Mining Relics at the Caestert Plateau, Petit – Lanaye (B). Symposium Field Trip 11th of May 2008 by Jacquo Silvertant.

179 Profile of the Institute Europa Subterranea.

180 Program of the symposium 2008.

Contents 2009

Table of Contents


5 Preface by John R. van Schaik

7 Table of Contents

8 Underground Landscapes; a Gap in Heritage Policies by Jacquo Silvertant

14 The underground Quarry at Glennes (Aisne – France) by Christelle Sosson, Alain Devos, Olivier Lejeune & A lain Marre 

26 Recognition of different quarrying Techniques at the “Zonneberg” Quarry In Maastricht, the Netherlands by Kevin Amendt

36 The „Hohestolln“ Mine at the Freiberg Central Region (Saxony, Germany) by Stephan Adlung

48 The medieval Quarry „22, Berkelstreet“ beneath Valkenburg Castle (Netherlands) revisited and documented by Jacquo Silvertant

64 Contributions on Research Methodology concerning the Reopening of narrow Mines by Jochen Babist, Ekkehard Rieder, Albert Pfeifer & Jochen Rietdorf

80 The Dating of Mine Gallery Profiles by Stephan Adlung & Martin Straβburger

108 Local Ambassadors for a Global Network; Residents’ Commitment in the Protection and Promotion of Geological Heritage by Claudia Eckhardt 

110 Avoiding the Damaging of Mining Relics by means of innovative Forestry Methods by Jens-Uwe Eder & Jochen babist

Program of the 2009 Symposium

Contents 2010

Table of contents


5 Preface by John van Schaik

6 Mining, Landscapes and underground Archaeology in Britain by Peter Claughton

14 Spatial Archaeology of Mining Landscapes by Martin Strassburger

36 The hidden Machine. A Quest for Traces of a Masterpiece at the Alten Mordgrube, Freiberg Mining Region (D) by Jens Kugler

52 The Compagnia Della Miniere/Mining Companu: a multi-disciplinary Approach to old and new Mining History by Claudia Chiappino & Alberto Massimo Maccabruni

62 Quarries? What Quarries? Limestone Quarries in Dutch Heritage Policiy by Henk Baas

74 Cvilinek: a new high medieval Mining Site in the Ore District Pelhrimov on the Bohemian-Moravian Uplands (CZ) by Petr Hruby, Petr Hejhal & Karel Maly

100 The Use of Gallery Profiles in the Limestone Quarries of South-Limburg (NL) by Kevin Amendt

120 Chemical Processes concerning the Emergence of Glazes on Furnace Stones; experimental archaeological Tests to bronze Age Copper Smelting by Rainer Werthmann

140 First Results concerning Questions on the Dating of Field Traces from Building Stone Extraction in the Odenwald (D) by Alexander Vögler & Jochen Babist

164 Geological Survey and the conventional Survey of Surfaces as Base Method for Field Prospection in Mining Archaeology by Jochen Babist

180 Roman Quarrying and the Use of local Cretaceaous Limestone in the Maastricht/Tongeren area (NL-B) by Jacquo Silvertant

Contents 2011

Table of contents


5 Prologue by the editor by Jacquo Silvertant

6 Definition and Systematics of Mining Archaeology by Martin Straßburger 

20 Teaching mining archaeology – But how? By Martin Straßburger   

32 Historical Mining and Quarrying: Opportunities, Challenges and Perspectives of communicating geo-cultural Heritage through Geo-tourism  by Claudia Eckhardt, Jochen Babist & Pia Mack                        

58 Historical underground Quarries in the Heritage Policy of the Municipality of Valkenburg a/d Geul (NL) by Wiel Felder & Joep Orbons 

68 Ancient Surface Mining Relics at the Caestert Plateau (B) by Jacquo Silvertant                      

78 Discovery of a long lost Quarry (B) by Kevin Amendt, Thierry Giesen, Boy Kluijt, Roger Magnee & Jacquo Silvertant   

88 19th Century Exploitation of a medieval Limestone Quarry (B) Kevin Amendt, Peter Jennekens & Roger Magnee 

102 Metallographic and chemical Data and possible Sources of Ore on two Bronze Age metal Ingots from Şpălnaca, Co. Alba (RO) and Arad, Co. Arad (RO) by Monica Macovei & Gheorghe C. Popescu            

110 Chemical investigations on iron production around the archaeological site of Altenburg nearNiedenstein, Hessen (D) by Rainer Werthmann

126 Low-cost Laser Scanning Techniques in Mining Research by Markus Gnirß, Jochen Babist & Pia Mack


Contents 2012

Table of contents


4 The “Ziel 3-Projekt Archeomontan”, medieval Mining in Saxony and Bohemia by Christiane Hemker

22 An Attempt to a descriptive Reconstruction of extractive Mining Technologies during the high Middle Ages at Dippoldiswalde, Saxony by Volkmar Scholz   

42 The Mining Region of Brikenberg (Bŕezové Hory) and mining technological Water Management by Josef Velfl & Ulrich Haag 

50 The mining of Iron Ore in the Central Region of the Moravian Karts by Jiří Merta & Ondřey Merta                                             

60 An old Mine in the eastern Odenwald Region near Obernburg-Eisenbach (D) by Andreas Schenkel           

66 Mining Landscapes from Remote Sensing (LIDAR DTM): Studycases in the Province of Trento (I) by Lara Casagrande 

72 Archaeological Excavation of two newly recorded high medieval Mining Sites in Kutnà Hora and in Hořany (CZ) by Filip Velímský   

92 About the Structure of Mining Areas and Mining Landscapes in the Middle Ages: Bohemian-Moravian Uplands (CZ) by Petr Hrubý

132 Roman Iron Age Lead Ore Mining and Lead Production in the Sauerland (D) by Martin Straβburger      

164 First Report of the Discovery of a 12th Century Open-Cast Building Stone Quarry at Valkenburg Castle (NL) by Jacquo Silvertant

Contents 2013

Table of contents


6 Early medieval ore mining in central Europe and neighbouring regions by Martin Straβburger                       

36 Iron ore mining in the southern Franconian Jura by Andreas Schenkel                      

42 Oppida und Bergbau by Peter Haupt   

50 Projektvorstellung „Lernort Bergbaulandschaften“ -  Burg, Bergwerk und Hütte am Silberberg bei Ober-Ramstadt (Südhessen) by Jochen Babist & Klaus Klepper  

58 Umweltveränderungen durch den hochmittelalterlichen Abbau der Pb-Zn-Ag-Lagerstätte Wiesloch bei Heidelberg by Ludwig H. Hildebrandt  

72 Anthropogene Geländemorphologie des Bergbaureviers Weschnitz bei Fürth im mittleren Odenwald (Südhessen) - Entstehung einer Kulturlandschaft by Jochen Babist

102 Die Bergbau- und Verhüttungs-Landschaft im Tal der Freiberger Mulde (Sachsen, Deutschland) - ein Forschungsprojekt by Stephan Adlung    

112 Handling of mining industrial monuments in Bavaria - A pilot project at Neukirchen at the Teisenberg, districts Traunstein/Berchtesgadener Land by Jochen Haberstroh & Martin Straßburger 

120 Auerbach Marble Quarries in the Odenwald near Hochstädten - Exploitation during Roman and Medieval times by Vilma Ruppiene, Ulrich Schüssler & Michael Unterwurzacher

130 Spuren antiker Steingewinnung bei Heppenheim? Experimentelle Ansätze zum Aufbau einer Typologie der Keiltaschen by Jochen Babist, Alexander Vögler, Markus Gnirß                                                 

154 Alle Wege führen zum Rhein - der Abtransport aus den römischen Steinbrüchen im vorderen Odenwald by Alexander Vögler    

180 Hydrogeochemische Untersuchungen zur Charakterisierung ausgewählter Grubenwässer aus dem Odenwald by Johannes Roos & Margot Isenbeck-Schröter    

206 3D printouts of geological structures, land surfaces and human interaction - an emerging field for science communication by Peter Löwe & Jens Klump      

212 Remote sensing and GIS tools to study the mining landscapes development in Trentino by Lara Casagrande    

218 Precisely Dating Iron Ore Mining and its Effects on an Alpine Valley - Summary of a dendrochronological Investigation of Charcoal Hearths and Relict Woodland Stands by Christa E. Backmeroff                  

Contents 2014

Table of contents


6 Archaeology of a 19th-20th century lignite deep mine at Kausche, Lower Lusatia by Martin Straßburger 

28 The study of cobble stone, bone, antler and wooden mining tools in prehistoric metal mining: new evidence from the British Isles and beyond by Simon Timberlake

58 The second life of old mines in France; destruction, protection and valuation by  Marie-Christine Bailly-Maître

70 Archaeology of mines and metals: an historiographic review by Pierre Fluck

88 Evidence of mining without mines:  smelting activity during the Bronze Age in Trentino by Elena Silvestri, Paolo Bellintani, Elisabetta Mottes, Franco Nicolis     

104 Importance of regional mining archeology in the research of the history of techniques, example of Le Thillot mines in the Vosges by Francis Pierre

122 An educational path to rediscover the history, the tools and the techniques for mining fluorite in the Prestavèl mine (Trento Province, Italy) by Graziano Lucchi, Giovanni Tosatti & Maurizio Boaretto

136 “Dark memories”: 3D reconstruction of the old Manina mines of (BG Italy) - Preliminary results by G. Belvederi, F. Cendron & M.L. Garberi 

150 Exploitation of the Traversella Mine in the 18th and 19th centuries by Emanuele Costa, Piera Benna, Fernando Cámara Artigas, Giovanna Antonella Dino, Lorenzo Mariano Gallo, Daniele Garabello, Piergiorgio Rossetti & Marco Rubbo  

162 Red and yellow ocher exploitation in the Lessini mountains (Veneto, NE Italy)  by G. Cavallo, M. P. Riccardi & R. Zorzin

170 The Busca Onyx: an historical ornamental stone from Piedmont  by Alessandra Marengo, Alessandro Borghi, Paola Cadoppi & Emanuele Costa

182 The ancient mines of Usseglio (Torino, Italy) by  Maurizio Rossi, Anna Gattiglia, Daniele Castelli, Claudia Chiappino, Renato Nisbet, Luca Patria, Franca Porticelli, Giacomo Re Fiorentin & Piergiorgio Rossetti

186 Mining archaeological research of medieval silver ore mining at Trento by Lara Casagrande, Bernd Päffgen & Martin Straßburger

196 Exploiting local resources in a new economic frame: Iron ores and bloomeries in Franche-Comté (F) during the Early Middle Ages by Paolo Forlin & Hervé Laurent                            

218 Know-How of miners from Lyonnais and Beaujolais: from the notebook to the photogrammetry, the study of fire setting and poll-pick techniques in Joux mines (Rhône, France) by G. Bonnamour, A. Arles & R. Bonnamour        

238 The 16th century galleries of Malgola (Predazzo, Trento, Northern Italy) by Elio Dellantonio

256  “CASIMIRO”: a proposal for a georeferenced database of mining and mineralogical sites in Trentino by Lara Casagrande & Paolo Ferretti 

260 Studying the Colline Metallifere mining area in Tuscany: an interdisciplinary approach   by M. Benvenuti, G. Bianchi, J. Bruttini, M. Buonicontri, L. Chia-rantini, L. Dallai, G. Di Pasquale, A. Donati, F. Grassi & V. Pescini

288 The Historical quarries from the Western Alps exploited for the realization of Via Roma in Turin (NW Italy) by Valentina Berra, Alessandro Borghi, Anna d’Atri, Giovanna Antonella Dino, Lorenzo M. Gallo, Elena Giacobino, Luca Martire & Gianluca Massaro

300 The Mining Village of Rivabella - Survey and cultural enhancement of a site devoted to the extraction of the kaolin by Anna Ferrarese, Mara Migliavacca

Contents 2015

Table of contents


8 Theoretical and practical aspects of iron smelting in a bloomer furnace by Oliver Metz & Romain Bohr

22 Early and high medieval iron production in the Grubet near Aichach by Martin Straβburger & Valerie Simbisai Chitate

36 Resistance and vulnerability of relics of historical opencast mining by Johannes Mahne-Bieder & Markus Hilpert

50 Iron-ore mining in the eastern Odenwald-area: an overview by Andreas Schenkel

54 The mining section of the “Deutsches Museum” in Munich by Klaus Freymann

60 Planning permission for tourist mines in Germany by Michael Straβburger

76 Chronology of the red and black/grey marble extraction techniques between the 18th and the 20th century in the Meuse area (B) by Frans Doperé

106 Kremsiger in the Ore Mountains: a mining settlement, or a town? By Kryštof Derner

130 Small water basins in high medieval mining in Dippoldiswalde, east of Freiberg Saxony by Volkmar Scholz

138 The mine under the bus station by Heide Hönig & Susann Lentsch

148 Into the darkness by Cajetan Geiger, Alina Kamm, Florian Rinser & Philipp Zander

162 The ancient Sulphur mines in Sapigno, Sant’Agata Feltria (I) by Giovanni Belvederi, Maria Luisa Garberi, Alessandro Gentilini, Fabio Peruzzi & Elmiro Poggioli

170 Pre-colonial gold mining in Nyanga, Zimbabwe by Martin Straβburger & Valerie Simbisai Chitate

204 Improvements in resistivity measurements for mining archaeological investigations by Andreas Milchsack

Contents 2016

Table of contents


6 Christian Aspmair & Manfred Windegger - The kneeling miner of Vilpian, the oldest evidence of mining in the area of Terlan and Nals

10 Christian Aspmair & Manfred Windegger - Documentation of historical mining activities in Völlan near Lana (South Tyrol)

22 Giovanni Belvederi, Massimo Ercolani, Maria Luisa Garberi, Piero Lucci & Baldo Sansavini - The roman quarries of Lapis Specularis in the Vena del Gesso Romagnola: the Lucerna Cave and the Cà Toresina Quarry

36 Martin Straßburger & Lara Casagrande - Three years of mining archaeological research on the Monte Calisio Plateau

78 Mirco Nonnis & Francesca Sanna - Digital Resource Map of Sulcis Iglesiente Mining Heritage: a project for collaboration and local development in a marginal area

88 Marco Meneghini - Underground mines and quarries in the national registry of artificial cavities of the Italian Speleological Society

98 Markus Gnirß & Jochen Babist - Development of a 3D laser scanner for outdoor and subterranean applications. First discussion about the dating of the “Stone Head” of Heppenheim/Bergstraße

118 Andreas Milchsack - Relocating historic map features in the field. An approach with a genetic algorithm

132 Martin Straßburger - The silver-lead-ore mine Caroline in the Central Black Forest

164 Jacquo Silvertant – The dry moat of Valkenburg Castle, stone quarrying and military defence

Contents 2017

6 Mining archaeology of Schnellingen at Haslach in the Kinzig Valley, Central Black Forest by Martin Straβburger   

46 Historic gold mining in central Saxony – introducing a project by Stephan Adlung   

68 An update from the project archaeology of the Mons Argentarius historical resources, remote sensing, tool mark finds by Lara Casagrande, Martin Straßburger, Francesca Condorelli, Giulia Roat, Federico Thaler, Jacopo Scoz

78 Archaeological recording and technical securing of an erdstall according to specifications of the Bavarian State Office for Monument Protection by René Kaiser, Gunnar Lenhard, Martin Straßburger   

100 Arthropods in the Ancient Mines of Central Europe by Dieter Weber

110 Manufacturing of lead pellets in Freiberg mine shafts by Jens Kugler

122 Lost knowledge on the meaning of historical graffiti at the underground Caestert stone quarry by Joris de Lange, Ruben Philipsen & Jacquo Silvertant

Contents 2018

7 Mining history of the galmei ore deposit "Altenberg" at Kelmis/La Calamine by Nikolaus Schmitz

35 Mining in the Schauinsland from the late Middle Ages until about 1800 by Martin Straβburger

87 Updates from the Mons Argentarius by M. Casagranda, L. Casagrande, F. Dell'amore, P. Feretti, C. Geiger, J. Scoz & M. Straβburger

107 Lignite mineralisation in the Valsugana Valley Trentino-Alto Adige (I) by Stefano Marighetti & Paolo Feretti

131 Exploring the Perticara mine in the footsteps of Pietro Pirazolli (I) by Giovanni Belvederi, Maria Luisa Garberi & Fabio Peruzzi

147 A Versatile Resource - The procurement and use of soapstone in Norway and the north Atlantic region (N) by Gitte Hansen & Per Storemyr

171 Archaeological approaches applied on the Mergelland underground (NL) by Joep Orbons

195 Souterrains and mottes (F) by Sébastien Noël & Luc Stevens

209 Mining, Memory and the Mountain - Iron mining on the Carrigou massif, Pyrénées Orientales (F) by Sharon Jenkins Carter & Peter Claughton

Contents 2019

5 Mining in North Palatinate. History and scientific approaches by Peter Haupt

17 Iron Production in the Ingelheimer Wald (Landkreis Bad Kreuznach, Gde. Daxweiler) by Peter Haupt

25 Sediments in Mining Archaeology   by Martin Straßburger

67 The study on pre-industrial mining in the Netherlands. An interdisciplinary specialisation in the making? by Jacquo Silvertant

79 From Penitence to Pollution. The impact of historic mining on the landscape of mid-Wales by Peter Claughton

93 Historic maps and mining archaeology. An introduction into the representations of the mining industry on the earliest maps, especially those of today’s Saxony/Germany by Susann Lentzsch   

Journal vol. 1 2021

1 The mining super giants of the medieval world by Jeanette Graulau

31 A short note on the evidence and possibilities for prehistoric ochre mining in the Forest of Dean (UK) by Simon Timberlake

43 Historical placer gold extraction under unfavourable hydrographic conditions by Stephan Adlung & Markus Schade

71 A multidisciplinary field workshop during the IES symposium 2016 by Andreas Milchsack, Paolo Ferretti & Manfred Windegger

85 Underground, but only just. Les minières: shallow iron workings in France by Peter Claughton